Recent research at Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Mumbai brings out that the signs in Indus script have similarity to spoken languages such as Sumerian from Mesopotamia and old Tamil from southern India. It has been challenging to interpret the Indus script as-. Copper rhino, copper chariot and copper elephant found at Daimabad. In addition to this we come across numerous symbols of the phallus and female sex organs made of stone which may have been objects of worship. It is called Harappan because the remnants of the civilization was discovered first at the modern site of Harappa located in the province of Punjab, Pakistan. They used to grow wheat, barley, mustard, sesame, some stones of date, and cotton for survival. They are chiefly made of steatite, some of them include a layer of a smooth glassy-looking material, but there are also e… It was the symbol of the deity. The Indus-Valley people were well-acquainted with the use both of cotton and wool. Apart from Lothal in Gujarat, the three Harappan sites on the Makran coast – Sutkagendor, Sotkako and Khairia kot have been generally considered to have been posts in the maritime links with the Gulf and Mesopotamia. In a few long seals the boustrophedon method – writing in the reverse direction in alternative lines – was adopted. The Harappan Civilization was one of the oldest civilization in the Indian sub-continent known for its modern structures. Also known as Harappan script, it is a unique unknown system of writing. The Indus Valley Civilization discovered the oldest script in history. Phases of Harappan Civilisation Harappan civilisation is dated between c. 2600 and 1900 BC. The same high authority goes farther and declares that the civilization of India is even superior to that of Mesopotamia and Egypt. Although the theory of ecological factors for the decline of the Harappan civilization is latest yet it does not give us complete answer. Both sites are in present-day Pakistan, in Punjab and Sindh provinces, respectively. Stock breeding was important in Indus culture. These are the nearest buildings to the river and thus could easily be supplied by river transport. Vedic literature preceded the Avestan(Old Persian) literature by approximately 500-1000 years, reports author Jaikrishna of the Varnam. Main types of seals are the square type with a carved animal and inscription and rectangular type with inscription only. Various causes have been ascribed for its weakening and then decay: Increase in rainfall, earthquake, decrease in fertility of soil, floods, Aryan invasion, disease etc. Tree and animal worship was also practiced by the people of Harappan Civilization. The variants are formed by adding different accents, inflexions or other letters to the former. The unique feature of the site is its division into two parts as in other cities but three sections. There are many indications that the later South Asian writing system called Brahmi script is descended from Indus script. Indus Valley Civilization Cities or City Map. The numerical and decimal system was evolved here which made remarkable contributions towards Vedic mathematics. In the citadel the most impressive buildings were the granaries which were store -houses. Metalworkers, shell -ornament makers and bead maker’s shops have been discovered here also. 6. A specimens of images made of both stone and metal have been discovered. On the other hand, the longest Harappan script shows less than 30 characters. Introduction of Origin and Extent of Harappan Civilisation, also know as Indus Valley Civilization We get an account of Origin and Extent of Harappan Civilization (Indus Valley Civilization) from the analysis of the ruins found at different places of the Indus valley and Mesopotamia. Plants, trees and pipal leaves are found on pottery. The Harappan civilization contributed towards the advancement of Mathematics. Scholars discovered four hundred signs until now, and they believe that the script gets written from right to left. The best specimen is the little figure of a nude dancing girl with right hand on hips, arms loaded with bangles, head slightly tilted and covered with curly hair, the eyes large and half closed. Professor Asko Parpola of the University of Helsinki, Finland has carried out extensive research in his attempts to decipher the Indus script as professor of Indology for the last forty years. Texts in the Indus script are too short of approx five-character at maximum. The Harappan script has always remained a mystery for the world. There is an absence of any temple among the remains of the Indus Valley. Some 3500 specimens of this script survive in stamp seals carved in stone, in moulded terracotta and faience amulets, in fragments of pottery, and in a few other categories of inscribed objects. Its presence implies the existence of a centralized tax collecting agency. Script and Language. It is a daunting task. In the lower town a particular building identified by Wheeler as the temple has a monumental entrance and twin stairways leading to a raised platform on which was found one of the rare stone sculptures of a seated figure. Saved by Rama R. 9. Numerous articles used as weights have been discovered. The script was mostly written from right to left. The civilization was beautifully constructed in 1500 km. The various occupations in which people were engaged spanned a wide range. The street ran straight and at right angles to each other following the grid system. Indian linguistic scholars have interpreted Indus texts as the Sanskrit language. A total of 420 signs have been found on these seals. Near the granaries were the furnaces where the metal workers produced a variety of objects in metals such as copper, bronze, lead and tin. Impressions of cloth are noticeable on some of the sealing found here. Save my name, e-mail, and site URL in my browser for next time I post a comment. A few seals were also carried as amulets, perhaps as a kind of identity card. Evidence of sea and river transport by ships and boats in several seals and terracotta models have been found apart from the dockyard at Lothal. These are inscribed on miniature steatite (soapstone) seal stones, terracotta tablets and occasionally on metal. In 1932, Indus script decipherment was first proposed by the famous Egyptologist of his time, Flinders Petrie. Image courtesy of J.M. Historians are of the view that the decline of the Indus Civilization was not the result of a single event; it was a slow decline and a result of combination of factors. Yeah, there is much left which is still unearthed, Your email address will not be published. Dr. Jonathan Mark Kenoyer delivers the 23rd Gulestan and Rustom Billimoria Endowment Lecture at the Asiatic Society of Mumbai, Dec. 14, 2020. Another building nearby was either a meeting hall or a market place. Square stamp seals are the dominant form of Indus writing media; they are normally an inch square (2.54 centimetres) displaying the script itself on the top and an animal motif at the centre. The plain pottery is more common than the painted ware. The language of the Harappans is still unknown and must remain so until the script is read. Some historians suggest that the first urban civilization came to an end around 1700 BC because its numerous small settlements grew beyond their natural limits leading to the mismanagement of natural resources. The only other Indus site where rice husk has been found is Rangpur near Ahmedabad. It is surrounded by verandas on four sides. They were used together with the units for weighing purpose. Banawali (Haryana) was situated on the banks of the now extinct Sarasvati River. They also invented the device of a cart to harness the labour force of the animals to the production of man’s utility. Thanks for appreciating The number of signs is between 400 and 600 of which 40 or 60 are basic and the rest are their variants. Traces of the remains of massive brick walls around both the citadel and the lower town have been discovered here. Two of these parts were protected by strong rectangular fortifications. The Harappans worshipped Pashupati Shiva in his actual form as well as in the representative form as Linga, worship of mother goddess, worship of trees, animals; serpents were all adopted by Hinduism. From the last hundreds of years, archaeologists are working on translating and deciphering the Indus or Harappan script. Spinning and weaving of cotton and wool, pottery making chiefly red clay with geometric designs painted in black, bead making from clay, stone, paste, shell and ivory, seal making, terracotta manufacture and brick laying. It will be interesting to know the history, heritage and the deciphering attempts for the Indus or Harappan script. Linguistic scholars have found minimal differences between the languages of Avestan and Vedic literature. However, scholars debate its inception from the two most common and ancient Indian languages Sanskrit and Dravidian (Tamil or Proto-Dravidian). Fire altars indicating the probable existence of a fire cult have been found. It is used together with other different symbols like number sign to denote the number of meals to be paid for. the Harappan civilization because Harappa was the first site, which brought to light the presence of this civilization. Harappan people used different types of pottery such as glazed, polychrome, incised, perforated and knobbed. Some Indus people buried their dead in graves others practised urn-burial. Seals were also used by different associations of merchants for stamping purposes and they were also worn around the neck or the arm. Certain trees seem to have been treated as sacred such as papal. Terracotta seals found at Mehargarh were the earliest precursors of the Harappan seals. Others point out that the Harappan culture was destroyed by the Aryans but there is hardly any evidence of a mass scale confrontation between the two. I comment the presence of few fish on the other hand, the Indus buried! Within the lower town was at Dholavira building measuring 150 feet ( breadth ) the and. Phoenician, various Aramaics and Hemiaretic are connected to or even derived from Harappan the... 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